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Toyota Supra

Toyota Supra

Toyota Supra
Overview
ManufacturerToyota
Production1979-1981 (Mark I)
1982-1986 (Mark II)
1986-1993 (Mark III)
1993-2002 (Mark IV)
Body Style(s)2+2 fastback
GT coupe
PlatformJZA8x
LayoutFR layout
Engine(s)3.0 L (2997 cc) 2JZ-GE I6
3.0 L (2997 cc) 2JZ-GTE I6
Transmission(s)5-speed W58 manual
6-speed V16x manual
4-Speed A341E automatic
Wheelbase100.4 in (2550.2 mm)
Length177.7 in (4513.6 mm)
Width71.3 in (1811.0 mm)
Height49.8 in (1265 mm)
Curb Weightnon-turbo: ~3210 lb (1460 kg)
turbo: ~3505 lb (1580.9 kg)
Specifications
Engine(s) SpecsSerial 6 cylinder DOHC24 valve IC twin turbo
Power220 hp (164 kW) @5800 rpm
276 bhp (205 kW)
Torque210 ft⋅lbf (285 N⋅m) @4800 rpm
260 ftlbf (352 Nm)
Redline (RPM)6800 rpm
Transmission(s) Specs5 or 6-speed Manual
4-speed Automatic
Drag CoefficientCd between .31 and .33
Green SpecsEPA city: 18mpg; highway: 23mpg
Rated Performance
Top Speed160mph (250 km/h); 180mph (289 km/h)
Acceleration0-60mph (0-100 km/h) in 4.6 seconds
Standing 1/4 Mile13.1 sec @ 109mph

History

The Toyota Supra was a sports car/grand tourer produced by Toyota Motor Company from 1979 to 2002. The styling of the Toyota Supra was derived from the Toyota Celica, but it was both longer and wider. Starting in mid-1986, the Supra (in its third generation, MKIII) became its own model and was no longer based on the Celica. In turn, Toyota also stopped using the prefix Celica and began just calling the car Supra. Due to the similarity and past of the Toyota Celica's name, it is frequently mistaken for the Toyota Supra, and vice versa.

The Supra also traces much of its roots back to the Toyota 2000GT with the main instance being its engine. The first three generations were offered with a direct descendant to the 2000GT's M engine. All four generations of Supra produced have an inline 6-cylinder engine.

Along with this name and car Toyota also included its own logo for the Supra. It is derived from the original Celica logo, being blue instead of orange. This logo was used until January 1986, when the MKIII Supra was introduced. The new logo was similar in size, with orange writing on a red background, but without the dragon design. That logo, in turn, was on Supras until the 1989 redesign when Toyota switched to its current oval company logo.

In 1999, Toyota ceased sales of the Supra in the United States and in 2002 Toyota officially stopped production of the Supra in Japan.

Last Production (Mark IV)

With the fourth generation of the Supra, Toyota took a big leap in the direction of a more powerful sports car. The new Supra was completely redesigned, with rounded body styling and featured two new engines: a naturally aspirated 2JZ-GE producing 220 hp (164 kW) @5800 rpm and 210 ftlbf (285 Nm) @4800 rpm (285 Nm) of torque and a twin turbocharged 2JZ-GTE making 276 bhp (205 kW) and 260 ftlbf (352 Nm) of torque for the Japanese version. For the export model (America/Europe) Toyota upgraded the Supra turbo's engine (larger turbochargers, bigger fuel injectors, etc.). This increased the power output to 320 hp (239 kW) @5600 rpm and 315 ftlbf (427 Nm) @4000 rpm. The turbocharged variant could achieve 060 mph in as low as 4.6 seconds and 1/4 mile (402 m) in 13.1 seconds at 109 mph (175 km/h) [2]. The turbo version was tested to reach over 289 km/h (180 mph) all-stock, but the cars are restricted to just 180 km/h in Japan and 250 elsewhere. European versions also had an air intake on the bonnet (hood). Drag coefficient is .33.

The MKIV Supra's twin turbos operated in sequential mode instead of the more common parallel mode. The sequential setup featured a pair of small, equally sized turbos, with ceramic blades for the domestic Japanese market and steel blades for export (USA, Europe) markets. At first, all of the exhaust is routed to the first turbine for reduced lag. This resulted in boost and enhanced torque as early as 1800 rpm. Approaching 4000 rpm, some of the exhaust is routed to the second turbine for a "pre-boost" mode, although none of the compressor output is used by the engine at this point. Approaching 4500 rpm, the second turbo's output is used to augment the first turbo's output. As opposed to the parallel mode, the sequential turbos provides quicker low RPM response and increased high RPM boost.

For this generation, the Supra received a new 6-speed GETRAG/Toyota gearbox on the Turbo models while the naturally aspirated models made do with a 5-speed manual. Both models were offered with a 4-speed automatic with a manumatic mode. However, the turbo model utilized larger 4-piston brake calipers on the front and 2-piston calipers for the rear. The base model used smaller 2-piston calipers for the front and a single piston caliper for the rear. The turbo models were fitted with 235/45/17 tires on the front and 255/40/17 tires for the rear. The base model used 225/50/16 for the front and 245/50/16 for the rears. All vehicles were equipped with 5-spoke aluminum alloy wheels and a "donut" spare tire on a steel wheel. Additionally, there are other differences in the rear axle differential, headlight assemblies, throttle body, oil cooler and a myriad of additional sensors that exist on the turbo model which do not exist on the normally aspirated model.

Toyota took measures to reduce the weight of the current model compared to the previous model. Aluminium was used for the hood, targa top (if so equipped), front crossmember, oil and transmission pans, and the suspension upper A-arms. Other measures included dished out head bolts, hollow carpet fibers, magnesium steering wheel, plastic gas tank and lid, gas injected rear spoiler, and a single pipe exhaust. Despite having more features such as dual airbags, traction control, larger brakes, larger wheels, larger tires, and an additional turbo, the car was at least 200 lb lighter than its predecessor. The base model with a manual transmission had a curb weight of 3210 lb. The Sport Roof added 40 lb while the automatic transmission added 55 lb. It had 51% of its weight up front and 49% to the rear wheels. The turbo model came in as 3505 lb with the manual and the automatic added another 10 lb. The front wheels held 53% of the weight and the rear wheels had 47% of the weight.

For the 1996 model year, the turbo model was only available with the automatic transmission due to OBD2 certification requirements. The targa roof was made standard on all turbo models. For 1997, the manual transmission is back for the optional engine along with a redesign of the tail lights, headlights, front fascia, chromed wheels, and other minor changes such as the radio and steering wheel designs. All 1997 models included badges that said, "Limited Edition 15th Anniversary." For 1998, the radio and steering wheel were redesigned once again. The naturally aspirated engine was enhanced with VVTI which raised the output by 5 hp (4 kW) and 10 ftlbf (14 Nm) of torque. The turbo model was not available in California, New Jersey, New York and Massachusetts due to increased emission regulations.

The stock MKIV Supra chassis has also proven an effective platform for roadracing, with several top 20 and top 10 One Lap Of America finishes in the SSGT1 class. The Supra is one of the heavier 2-door Japanese sports cars. However still lighter than the Nissan R33 and R34 Skyline GTRs to which the Supra is traditionally a rival in its home country. The Supra was also lighter than the Mitsubishi 3000GT VR4, although it is about 200 pounds heavier than the Nissan 300zx 2-seater with a slightly smaller wheelbase. Despite its curb weight, in 1994 the MKIV managed a remarkable skidpad rating of 0.98 lateral g's [1] due in part to a four-sensor four-channel track tuned ABS system with yaw control whereby each caliper is sensored and the brakes are controlled individually according to the speed, angle, and pitch of the approaching corner. This unique Formula One inspired braking system allowed the Supra Turbo to record a 70-0 braking distance of 149 feet (45 m) [2], the best braking performance of any production car tested in 1997 by Car and Driver magazine. This record was finally broken in 2004 by 3 feet by a Porsche GT.

Due to the strength of the stock engine, the 2JZ series has remained a popular import platform for modification. Stock engine hardware has been known to reliably withstand power levels in excess of 3 times the original power ratings. In drag racing, the Supra and similarly powered 2JZ cars have been quite competitive. Drag models of the Lexus GS, Toyota Celica, and Toyota Soarers have used the same engine.

Sales to Canada were stopped in 1995, and ceased being imported into the US in 1998. Production continued in Japan until August 2002 due to restrictive emission standards to be adhered to by 2003.

Other

Awards

The MK II, with its all-new design, quickly became a success in the US where it was awarded the Import Car of the Year by Motor Trend. It also made Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1983 and 1984.

In 1994, the MK IV Supra won Popular Mechanics "Design & Engineering awards".

Motorsport

The Toyota Supra has been used in many motorsports including Drag racing, Touring, Rallying, IMSA, JGTC/Super GT, Le Mans, Supra HV-R, and Drifting.

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Source: Wikipedia under the GNU Free Documentation License


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